by Erin Chantry
s you may know, the CNU20 conference was organized around tracks, which allowed you to focus on your particular interest and how it relates to New Urbanism. I spent most of my time on the "Mobility and Walkable City" track since that is where my concentration lies. There is no doubt that the best breakout session of this track was "Why Did We Stop Walking & How Do We Start Again? The Dawn of the Motor Age in the American City" presented by Eric Dumbaugh, Richard Hall, and Peter Norton.
I came into this session with a heightened awareness of this topic after concentrating on Tom Vanderbilt's series, The Crisis in American Walking, in Slate magazine last month. I wasn't expecting to learn much more. I mean, what was there to learn? We started building our streets around the car because more people started driving, right? I couldn't have been more wrong. As it turns out, there was a blatant social, economic, and political shift that taught us to change the way we used our streets. This was not a natural change in priorities, but a direct result of media propaganda.
Now, we always hear that we can't blame our problems on our past. Our choices are ours alone. If we choose to get into our automobile and drive to the grocery store instead of walk this afternoon, it's our own responsibility. Yes, there is truth in that. But just as we might discover in a personal therapy session that there are reasons we make the choices we do in our every day lives, this session enlightened me about why Americans behave the way they do.
I encourage you all to read Fighting Traffic by Peter Norton to get all the gory details, but for me the brainwashing media campaign that two generations before me suffered, culminated in the TV show Merrily We Roll Along, narrated by Groucho Marx, as part of the weekly series, DuPont Series of the Week, in 1961. While the campaign against the pedestrian started 40 years prior, it was this show that coined the phrase "American's love affair with the automobile." In it, Groucho Marx narrated that we love our cars and would do anything for them. Essentially, we can't help any destruction or negative impacts they leave in their wake because we love them too much. The analogy was made between cars and women, i.e., "we can't live with them, we can't live without them." Man was the driver, the car was the woman. Americans were helplessly in love.
And what a surprise! Pierre DuPont had a controlling stock in GM (General Motors) from 1914 to 1957 (until he was forced to sell to keep from monopolizing the market as part of the Clayton Antitrust Act), was the GM board chairman for a significant amount of time, and was appointed president of GM in 1920. Americans didn't decide they had a love affair with the automobile, the DuPont family and Groucho Marx did, and we have believed it ever since.
Of course the media campaign by the car industry started way before in the early '20s. Peter Norton showed us this picture that was taken in Detroit, "The Motor City," in 1917:
Woodward Avenue at Monroe Avenue, Detroit, 1917 (Source: Detroit News)
In one of the busiest intersections of this big city, all users are sharing the street. Pedestrians and streetcars navigate around each other carefully. This was normal and nothing was thought of it. The street belonged to people and it was completely safe to let your children play in the street. Shift to 1923, when the number of automobile fatalities increased to 15,500 from 500 in 1907, most of them children 4-8 years old. People were in an uproar about cars, drivers, and the automobile industry. Sensing a threat to its growing business, the industry went into a high gear (no pun intended) "educational," or I might say, brainwashing, media campaign. "Jaywalking," which wasn't even a word in the American dictionary, was invented and then associated with a ridicule of anyone who did this. Clowns were hired to dress up like buffoons, or "jaywalkers," and then ridiculed in public on the streets. The auto industry realized the power of social norms and used them. In Cincinnati, when the local government tried to cap car speed off at 25 mph on any streets, this was the media response:
Advertisement by Citizen's Committee, 1923. (Source: Cincinnati Post)
The ordinance failed.
I think it's important to mention here that while Americans did need convincing to give their streets up to the automobile, they were simultaneously driving more themselves. As the car became more financially accessible and the streetcar was put out of business (by the automobile), it was perhaps easier to understand the messages that the industry was feeding them. After all, the growing number of drivers didn't want to be blamed for the death of children. It was much easier to blame their parents for letting them play in the street. It is true that the car was empowering and expressive: it could take you wherever you wanted to go, when you wanted to go, and however you wanted to go. Pierre DuPont and Groucho Marx might have had an audience waiting on them, but there is no doubt that without the media campaign they might have not gone so willingly or blindly into the destruction that the automobile caused.
The media shift to loving the automobile is still very much alive today. Raquel Nelson is a woman who was charged with the death of her own son when he was struck by a drunk driver crossing a busy arterial in Marietta, Georgia. You can read more about it here. This was not the first time this has happened. Peter Norton made the case that streets now belong to the car, and anyone that gets in the way of the car is at fault. His point was made clear when he presented data collected by transportation departments in monitoring safety. The data list the reasons for pedestrian deaths in a manner that inherently blames the pedestrian, i.e.: "death due to disability." As if this person could control the fact that they were disabled. While many people think that this is absurd, the shift back to streets belonging to people has simply not happened. The AASHTO guide clearly equates higher car speed with safety. Higher speed = street design for the automobile = life threatening conditions for anyone else trying to use the street.
The shift from blaming the driver to blaming the pedestrian: Baltimore's memorial to child accident victims during its 1922 dedication by the mayor (Source: National Safety News) and the media coverage of Raquel Nelson in 2012 (Source: Huffington Post)
Holy cow, knowing this made me so sad. It would be one thing if the destruction we had caused to our built environment was a natural progression of ignorant behavior, but it was due in large part to the manipulations of the corporate media. Heartbreaking. It makes me feel helpless, because it shows how easily our human nature is swayed. GM held our hands and led us into what could be argued as one of the most destructive relationships of the 20th century: man and car. Who knows what long-term destruction will be caused by the manipulation of the media today.
But then Eric Dumbaugh voiced a very opportunistic thought: this media campaign worked once, it can work again. We were so easily influenced to believe that the death of our children was worth our "love affair" with the car. This is evidence that convincing people of anything is possible. Of course behind the media campaign of the first half of the 20th century was a multi-million dollar industry. Just like the tobacco industry that followed in its footsteps, its influence was motivated by profit, not the betterment of mankind. So this is our challenge: who will take the lead in this extremely expensive media campaign when the government has just pumped $27 billion dollars into GM?
Eric Dumbaugh also made the point that we need to know our past to understand our future. All built environment professionals need to read Fighting Traffic to fully understand how to move forward in reclaiming our streets. Thanks to Peter Norton for his extremely enlightening research into why we are the way we are today. So much has been explained, the enlightening result will help us move forward to building streets where our children can play again.
Erin Chantry is an Urban Designer in the Urban Design and Community Planning Service Team with Tindale-Oliver and Associates. She is also the author of "At the Helm of the Public Realm." With a BA in Architecture, MA in Urban Design and an MSc in Urban Planning, Erin has served on a variety of projects for both public sector and private sector clients, with a primary focus on architecture, urban design, land use planning, design research, and sustainability. She has expert knowledge in New Urbanism, LEED for Neighborhood Development, and how sustainable city planning and urban design can be used as a catalyst for redevelopment.