Urban planning community | #theplannerlife

+ Reply to thread
Results 1 to 18 of 18

Thread: Islamic Planning Criteria

  1. #1
    Member
    Registered
    Feb 2004
    Location
    KUALA LUMPUR MALAYSIA
    Posts
    6

    Islamic Planning Criteria

    Hello... anybody can help me to find out abt islamic planning. I need to know abt islamic planning citeria. Anybody out there can help me to give a references or write up.

    LeCk

  2. #2
    Cyburbian SGB's avatar
    Registered
    Nov 2002
    Location
    Champlain-Adirondack Biosphere Reserve
    Posts
    3,387
    Has anyone seen Cityscape Dreamer around? She might be a good source of information on this question.....

  3. #3
    Cyburbia Administrator Dan's avatar
    Registered
    Mar 1996
    Location
    Upstate New York
    Posts
    14,740
    Blog entries
    3
    Interesting question. I wish I had an answer for you, but unfortunately I don't.

    One hears about Islamic architecture, but not really Islamic planning. Perhaps planning in Islamic regions isn't so much connected with the religion as it is with the underlying local culture. How is the form of a Malaysian city different than what you might find in Thailand or Indonesia? Would zoning play a role? Are there certain proportions or numbers that are important? Can there be any places beyond the call of an iman?

    Islam seems to be concentrated in areas with warm climates, so the local environment definitely would play a part in how the built environment is shaped.

    The one place in the world where you might see a noticeable difference between "Islamic" town planning and another form would be in Jerusalem. Arab areas of the city can be identified by roads and buildings that seem to acknowledge and respect the hilly, dry landscape better -- they're more organic, for lack of a better word -- than those in Jewish areas of the city, where large tracts of land are developed at once instead of incrementally.
    Growth for growth's sake is the ideology of the cancer cell. -- Edward Abbey

  4. #4
    Member
    Registered
    Feb 2004
    Location
    KUALA LUMPUR MALAYSIA
    Posts
    6
    thanks Dan,

    what i mean is the elemens or concept of islamic planning criteria..what shoul have in plan the islamic city.

  5. #5
    Member
    Registered
    Feb 2004
    Location
    KUALA LUMPUR MALAYSIA
    Posts
    6
    SGB...who is she actually...i'm new in here.

    BTW thanks for onfo

  6. #6
    Cyburbian SGB's avatar
    Registered
    Nov 2002
    Location
    Champlain-Adirondack Biosphere Reserve
    Posts
    3,387
    LeCk -

    Cityscape Dreamer is a urban and regional planning student here in the United States. She is also a Muslim. You can read her introduction here. She hasn't posted in these forums in a while, but she may still be around.

    I don't know if her studies have included islamic planning principles, but she might be able to point you in the right direction.

    Note that she does have Yahoo instant messaging.

  7. #7
    Cyburbia Administrator Dan's avatar
    Registered
    Mar 1996
    Location
    Upstate New York
    Posts
    14,740
    Blog entries
    3
    Let's start off with this ... what do you think some of the principles of Islamic planning would be?
    Growth for growth's sake is the ideology of the cancer cell. -- Edward Abbey

  8. #8
    Cyburbian biscuit's avatar
    Registered
    Nov 2002
    Location
    Paris of Appalachia
    Posts
    3,902
    I'm not sure about contemporary Islamic planning theory, but I do remember a few things about traditional Islamic architecture and urban design from back in school. Historically Muslim cities and towns followed the same basic principles. These being...

    -The Mosque is usually located at the center of town and is often the tallest building.
    - The markets and commercial areas then radiate outwards from the mosque with the most upscale and "respectable" businesses closer in.
    - Residential areas are then located in quarters outside of the commercial zones with lots of emphasis on privacy.
    - Most buildings were simple on the outside saving the adornments for the interior space.
    - Many homes were the courtyard style houses which are common in hot climates.

    Wish I had more but that's all the knowledge I have on this subject. Although this is an interesting topic so I might just have to do a little research and learn more.

  9. #9
    Cyburbian nerudite's avatar
    Registered
    Aug 2001
    Location
    Edmonton
    Posts
    5,506
    Have you tried looking at revitalization projects? Maybe by studying the theory behind historic sites you can gleen some design practices.

    Links to the Aga Khan Zone for Culture: includes several revitalization projects

    Aga Khan Program for Islamic Architecture: links to their MIT program site and their Harvard program site.

  10. #10

    Registered
    Oct 2001
    Location
    Solano County, California
    Posts
    6,468
    I don't know, H. Some of the other student posts have exhibited similar spelling errors. The user name is a little...odd, but maybe he/she didn't realize some interpretations of those letters.

    I doin't see us as a major source of wisdom for Islamic planning, either, but if the poster came to Cyburbia through a google search or other link, why not be more "trusting" that it was a real request.

  11. #11

  12. #12
    Cyburbian Plus
    Registered
    Jun 2003
    Location
    curiosity
    Posts
    22,316
    List taken from the Institutes whose members are eligible for International Associateship in The Royal Town Planning Institute RTPI
    http://www.rtpi.org.uk/careers-and-m...rms/FormIA.pdf

    They did not have links to any of these but it is a start
    Revised list as of February 2001

    BANGLADESH Bangladesh Institute of Planners (BIP)
    CYPRUS Cyprus Association of Town Planners (CATP)
    INDIA Institute of Town Planners, India (ITPI)
    MALAYSIA Malaysia Institute of Planners (MIP)
    PAKISTAN Pakistan Institute of City and Regional Planning (PICRP)
    SINGAPORE Singapore Institute of Planners (SIP)
    TURKEY TMMOB Şehir Plancőlarő Odaső (SPO)

  13. #13
    Cyburbia Administrator Dan's avatar
    Registered
    Mar 1996
    Location
    Upstate New York
    Posts
    14,740
    Blog entries
    3
    This is an academic paper, so I'm posting it in entirety.

    http://worldnetva.pwnet.org/lesson_plans/15.htm

    Written By: Leigh Shipman
    Submitted By: Leigh Shipman, shipmaml@pwcs.edu
    Grade Taught: 10
    School: C.D. Hylton High School
    Division: Prince William County Public Schools

    THE ISLAMIC CITY: Order Within Chaos

    Despite the chaotic appearance it presents at first glance-especially in relation to some of the newer, more spacious and formal parts of the city that surround it-the Islamic city is an entirely rational structure. Its notoriously narrow streets provide vital shade, keep down winds and dust, and use up little valuable building land.

    In fact, there is a clear logic underlying the city's layout, one that is announced in the holy book of Islam, the Koran, and codified by the various schools of Islamic law. Although there are regional differences, most towns and cities that have developed under the influence of Islam at any time in the last 1,300 years show surprisingly similar features. These apply to hundreds of settlements in a broad swath of land from Seville, Granada, and Cordoba in southern Spain in the west, to Lahore in Pakistan in the east. Elements of these ideas can be found in cities as far away as Dar es Salaam in East Africa and Davao in the Philippines.

    Although Islamic cities have generally been allowed to grow piecemeal, sometimes over many centuries, every new building or street has been constructed in line with certain basic regulations governing the rights of others and the pursuit of the virtuous life in the densely crowded city environment.

    The main guiding principles of Islamic city planning: recognize the need to maintain personal privacy; specify responsibilities in maintaining urban systems on which other people rely, such as keeping thoroughfares or wastewater channels clear; and emphasize the inner essence of things rather than their outward appearance. This last principle applies as much to the decoration of houses as to more purely spiritual issues.

    The major elements of the Islamic city are easily described. At the city's heart lies the Friday mosque, or Jami, typically the largest structure in the city. A number of smaller mosques are often found toward the periphery. It is rare, however, for other mosques to rival the Jami in height.

    Close to the Jami are the main suqs, the covered bazaars or street markets that are generally specialized in function. Within the suqs, trades are located in relation to the Jami. Closest in are those tradespeople who enjoy the highest prestige, such as booksellers and perfumers. Farthest away are those who perform the noxious and noisy trades, such as coppersmiths, blacksmiths, and cobblers. The neutral tradespeople, such as dressmakers and jewelers, who create no physical offense, act as an intermediary buffer.

    Attached to the ramparts, on which are located several towers and gates, is an immense fortified structure, the Kasbah. Usually perched on the highest ground, it was a place of refuge to which the sovereign or governor retreated when the main city had fallen to an enemy or was in the throes of civil war. The Kasbah contained not only the palace buildings and the barracks, but also its own small mosques, baths, shops and even markets.

    Everywhere else within the city is filled with cellular courtyard houses of every size and shape, tied together by a tangle of winding lanes, alleys, and cul-de-sacs. Housing is grouped into quarters, or neighborhoods, that are defined according to occupation, religious sect, or ethnic group.

    The most important residential unit in the Islamic city, the courtyard house, clearly demonstrates the application of the various principles of Islamic city planning. Outside walls lining a street are usually left bare and are rarely pierced by windows. If windows are necessary, they are placed high above street level, making it impossible to peer in. Entrances are L-shaped, and doorways opening onto the street rarely face each other, thus preventing any direct views into the house.

    In hot climates, courtyards with trees and water fountains provide shade, but they also provide an interior and private focus for life sheltered from the public gaze. But within the courtyard and the house itself the appearance of plainness often gives way to lavish displays of wealth and decoration. The vividness inside parallels the emphasis in the Koran on the richness of the inner self compared to more modest outward appearance.
    Some new houses in suburban Riyadh. Privacy is key, as the article describes.



    Just for comparison, here's housing in an American desert city (Las Cruces, New Mexico)





    A Google search for "Koran" and "City Planning" or "Urban Planning" also comes up with quite a bit. A couple of quotes from the links; I'll leave it to the OP to do more extensive research.

    Students also learned that Muslims apply the principles of their faith to the cities they build. The Koran, the holy book of Islam, explains the logic behind the layout.

    One of the main guiding principles in city planning is to recognize the need to maintain personal privacy.

    Doorways do not face each other, preventing any direct views into houses, the students explained.

    Snowden said houses in Islamic cities are often plain on the exterior, while lavishly decorated on the inside. This parallels with the Koran's teaching that the inner self should be rich and the outside appearance more modest.

    To end their lesson on the Middle East, students will read chapters from the Koran, she said.
    Mosques are centers of cities, or of neighborhoods in cities. This function does not always have to be structured, but can be connected to mentality, and the construction of a new mosque makes a centre emerge. Very few mosques lie in open areas, and very few mosques does not have shops and commercial activities in the streets around it. People's houses are often lying in a second "circle" outside the mosque and the shops. Other social functions have often been connected to mosques, schools, law courts, hospitals, and lodging for travelers. This pattern is based upon the Madina mosque, but is of less importance today, as city planning now often use Western models.
    Growth for growth's sake is the ideology of the cancer cell. -- Edward Abbey

  14. #14
    Cyburbian Doitnow!!'s avatar
    Registered
    Dec 2003
    Location
    India
    Posts
    499
    I'm Not sure about the any specific Islamic Planning principles Leck but Im sure about the styles of planning which you mention.
    ALso you may find some similarity to the roman era city plans.

    Many modern cities in india still have a historic core which was built by Islamic rulers of then. Averaging around 500-600 years these were mostly organic growths without any perceptible planning technique. Maybe that growth helped the settlement defend itself from invaders.
    But whatever other cities have is a grid iron plan with large dominating structures( mostly mosques and palaces)

    In the historic core of the city I live in theres a definite grid iron with separate quadrants for different classess of the peoples of then.
    Axis was definitely very strong.

    What kind of research are you doing and what is the objective.
    Do you intend to apply it somewhere.?
    Answers will help people in the forum direct their responses better, I think.
    Do let us know

  15. #15
    Cyburbian Doitnow!!'s avatar
    Registered
    Dec 2003
    Location
    India
    Posts
    499
    After reading Dans reply I wonder how much the cities like dubai etc are following these principles.
    Even the Kualalumpur structure plan, a copy of the report and map which I have, seems to be modernistic and westernised.

    I would be interested to know the climatic considerations the islamic cities had inbuilt into the planning mechanism.
    as i mentioned that the historic core of the city I live in is islamic and about 500 years old. That was planned by the technical consultant :-P who planned/design Isfahan ( Iran)

    About privacy and internal courtyards. Yes. The former would depend on the local culture and the latter on the environmental design

  16. #16

    Registered
    Oct 2001
    Location
    Solano County, California
    Posts
    6,468
    Interesting essay, Dan. I would note, though, that garage door suburbia (even the photos you posted) somewhat share the inner-focus on family privacy. The doors are closed, and people live in their back yards or media rooms. Compare this to the more gragarious lifestyle of an Italian or Greek, where "privacy" is traditionally less important (especially for males) and people live in the streets and squares. (Not that any particular lifestyle is "superior," its jsut cultures are different.)

  17. #17
    Member
    Registered
    Mar 2004
    Location
    Cairo, Egypt
    Posts
    1
    I think that I read in PhD which titled
    contextual urban design for reshaping the arabic islamic historical places
    for Dr./ Galal Abada ( Stadtebau - Institut , Stuttgart 1999 )
    many criterias deal with that points , if you need any kowledges about many arabic islamic historical towns such as Cairo , Alleppo , Tunis , Riyadh and sana`a
    this thesis will help you .

  18. #18
    Cyburbian sisterceleste's avatar
    Registered
    Mar 2004
    Location
    No Where Man
    Posts
    1,519
    Quote Originally posted by LeCk-JPBD SELANGOR
    Hello... anybody can help me to find out abt islamic planning. I need to know abt islamic planning citeria. Anybody out there can help me to give a references or write up.

    LeCk
    I lived in Teheran before the Shah was ousted and visited other cities in Iran. There was always the section of town called the "old city" and the newer areas. The newer areas tended to be concentric just like sprawl in the west. The older part of the cities contained the ghetto, the bazaar and the mosques and the typical central business district. Having lived extensively also in Europe, I did not find anything unusal about the layout of the cities in Iran.

+ Reply to thread

More at Cyburbia

  1. Replies: 4
    Last post: 08 Aug 2013, 4:16 PM
  2. Replies: 6
    Last post: 06 Dec 2010, 5:11 PM
  3. Islamic urban design
    Design, Space, and Place
    Replies: 13
    Last post: 01 Mar 2007, 11:18 AM
  4. TOD planning/Evaluation Criteria
    Transportation Planning
    Replies: 7
    Last post: 06 Oct 2005, 1:43 AM
  5. Islamic Justice?
    Friday Afternoon Club
    Replies: 16
    Last post: 30 Sep 2004, 12:23 PM