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Thread: Building a comprehensive plan - THE CYBURBIA FAQ

  1. #51

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    Natural resource elements vary a lot. Williston's (VT) is incorporated into our Open Space Plan, which is a separate document adopted by reference in the comp plan. We also have a separate watershed health plan element that covers mateiral that is often included in a natural resources element. The drafts are currently on-line on the Town's website. The best reference book is Frederick R Steiner's The Living Landscape.

  2. #52
    Cyburbian TOFB's avatar
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    Definition
    Inventory
    Ag land
    Soils
    Terrian/Topography
    Extractive Minerals
    Watercourses/Wetlands/Floodplains
    Urban Forest
    Introduction to Ecological Footprinting, Life Cycle Design,
    Pollution and EPA's Effort to do something about it, BMP's
    Anticipated/Desired Change (Recommendations)

    Pretty straight forward

  3. #53
    Super Moderator kjel's avatar
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    Thanks....all of you have been very helpful to this intern. The internship has been a bit disappointing because I have been relegated to a windowless room that doubles as the break/conference room. Everyone says they are always busy and don't have time to show/explain any of the inner workings of the office. I did finish the Population Element and it came back with only a few minor requests, which were easily completed and now it will be adopted into the Comp Plan.

    Working on the Natural Resource portion of the plan which should go fast. A request has been made by the county manager that my senior research project be included into it so that's what I am working on currently aside from reformatting and smoothing out the existing document.

    Six more weeks left and then I am off to grad school for planning....hopefully I will get a little more exposure there.
    "He defended the cause of the poor and needy, and so all went well. Is that not what it means to know me?" Jeremiah 22:16

  4. #54
    This is a great thread... interesting to see how others are working on similar issues we face daily. For what its worth here is my .02....

    Q. What should I know before starting to develop a comprehensive plan for my community?

    The answer to the following 3 questions:

    1 - What are your community's local critical issues / issues of concern? (Leads to the community vision/value statement. Also idea's plan's primary goals and objectives.)

    2 - What community conditions have changed since your last comprehensive plan and how do those changes relate to your community's local critical issues? (Completed through extensive assessment of community data)

    3 - What are the best planning practices to address your critical issues? (Involves an assessment of smart growth, sustainable development, land use planning, case law, and other planning practices as they relate to your community.)

    Q. What do you do when you've exhausted all of your means and still cannot get any substantial public input for the community's plan? & Q. What innovate methods do people use to advertise or increase turnout at public meetings?

    Not sure what you've tried, but start with an assessment of your efforts and then be creative in finding solutions. Recognize that the goal of your public efforts should guide your process. We have used a variety of public involvement techniques including visioning, charrettes, public hearings, and workshops.

    Each different function was very well publicized through a identified marketing scheme that includes a name & logo. We have sent the logo to both local newspapers and ask them to use it when writing an article about the project. We have also developed a mailing list from previous participants and website.

    Q. What are the key elements/aspects that the comprehensive plan should address?

    Besides the basics that others have identified so well....

    Start with your state growth management legislation. (Here in Florida that is very specific.) Then tailor those state requirements to meet the community critical issues. IE: Florida Requirement: Coastal Management (includes coastal development & disaster planning components). Local Critical Concerns: Waterfront (all waterways not just coast) & Coastal Development. Emergency Management & Disaster Planning Services (not just disaster management). Comp Plan Elements: Coastal and Waterfront Development. Emergency Management. All issues get addressed more thoroughly, index shows state where to find policies that meet statutory requirements.

    Q. 6 months after it's adoption and printing, is there any reason to keep drafts / comments in the file ?

    NO. In fact it may hurt you because it will give naysayers something to scrutinize. We keep only those drafts that are reviewed in public meetings, all others trash as soon as the meeting is over and new draft created.

    Q. Does anyone have an example of a Comp Plan Timeline?
    Yes and I'm happy to send it to you. However our process is exaggerated because of Florida requirements to complete an official community assessment report (known as the Evaluation and Appraisal Report). Here are the basic steps:

    1a) Determine local critical issues through public forums
    1b) Evaluate current community conditions & past planning practices.
    2) Identify policy solutions/alternatives to critical issues and community conditions
    3) Conduct public hearings about solutions/alternatives
    4) Adopt plan.
    5) Revise LDRs

    5 easy steps that center around the basic planning model. We started in Fall 2004 and will finish with the Comp Plan in Fall 2007. Then we will revise the LDRs....

    Qs on Data & Community Information:

    Remember most people will not read all of this data, so focus on quality not quantity. The key issue is to make sure your goals, objectives, and policies can be supported by your data and analysis.

    Also, we have done 2 things to make the Comp Plan more user friendly 1) Made 2 volumes 1 with gops and 1 with d&a. 2) Included illustrations, pictures, maps, and other graphics that explain or highlight the policy outcomes in the gops volume.

    Hope those ideas help.... Look forward to reading more of your posts to get new ideas.

  5. #55
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    The PUBLIC

    Know that no matter what you do the public at some point will be very very angry with some part of the plan

  6. #56
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    Quote Originally posted by el Guapo View post
    Q. What should I know before starting to develop a comprehensive plan for my community?
    Know the Law, because that is the expession of the will of the People. Has any such plan ever been duly published, adopted and filed as a matter of public record in the County Probate Court. This is required by statute but it is a little known fact that since the "Master Plan", the official map is a fake it has never been adopted; therefore it is not on record as a matter of law. This is a very touchy subject I have found, especially in the Probate Court. Apparently Lawyers make a good living from all this confusion. As some wit has said, "If you're not part of the solution there's good money to be made in prolonging the problem".

    Quote Originally posted by big_g View post
    Question:
    What can we do to promote cross-jurisdictional communication and cooperation when developing comprehensive plans
    .
    Isn't that what the Regional Planning Commission is for? As a matter of coordination that is what an Architect is for; but it seems the Architect has been lost in the shuffle - the big boy politicians and other wheeler dealers have taken that prerogative to themselves by default.

    Quote Originally posted by edyo View post
    Q. What is different between Comprehensive Plan and Master Planning ? and What is different between Structure planning and Detail Planning?
    Good question. I would say they might be one in the same - it depends on the size of the project. If it is a Master Plan for an entire City, a Comprehensive Plan would be for the entire County or Region, in as much as the City is a subdivision of the County or Region. I realize that in practice this is not so clearly defined.

    Quote Originally posted by Big Easy King View post

    What are the key elements/aspects that the comprehensive plan should address?

    I'll offer just a few, but please chime in.

    - scope of the plan
    - neighborhood and local historic district descriptions
    - demographics
    - economic development
    - transportation modes and systems
    - parks, recreation, and open space
    Example:

    Alabama Code

    Section 11-52-8 Municipal Planning

    Adoption, etc., of master plan for physical development of municipality by commission — Authorization and procedure generally; contents of plan. It shall be the function and duty of the commission to make and adopt a master plan for the physical development of the municipality, including any areas outside of its boundaries which, in the commission's judgment, bear relation to the planning of such municipality. Such plan, with the accompanying maps, plats, charts and descriptive matter shall show the commission's recommendations for the development of said territory, including, among other things, the general location, character and extent of streets, viaducts, subways, bridges, waterways, waterfronts, boulevards, parkways, playgrounds, squares, parks, aviation fields and other public ways, grounds and open spaces, the general location of public buildings and other public property, the general location and extent of public utilities and terminals, whether publicly or privately owned or operated, for water, light, sanitation, transportation, communication, power and other purposes, the removal, relocation, widening, narrowing, vacating, abandonment, change of use or extension of any of the foregoing ways, grounds, open spaces, buildings, property, utilities or terminals; as well as a zoning plan for the control of the height, area, bulk, location, and use of buildings and premises. As the work of making the whole master plan progresses, the commission may from time to time adopt and publish a part or parts thereof, any such part to cover one or more major sections or divisions of the municipality or one or more of the aforesaid or other functional matters to be included in the plan. The commission may from time to time amend, extend or add to the plan.
    (Acts 1935, No. 534, p. 1126; Code 1940, T. 37, §791.)

    Section 11-85-4 Regional Planning

    Adoption, etc., of master plan for physical development of region by commission; contents and purpose of plan. Any regional planning commission is hereby authorized and empowered to make, adopt, amend, extend and add to a master regional plan for the physical development of its region. Such plan shall be based on comprehensive studies of the present and future development of the region with due regard to its relation to neighboring regions and the state as a whole and to neighboring states. Such plan, including maps, charts, diagrams and descriptive matter, shall show the commission's recommendations for the physical development of the region and may include, among other things, the general location, extent and character of streets, parks and other public ways, grounds and open spaces, public buildings and properties and public utilities (whether publicly or privately owned or operated) which affect the development of the region as a whole or which affect more than one political subdivision of the state within the region, the general location of forests, agricultural and open development areas for purposes of conservation, food and water supply, sanitary and drainage facilities or the protection of future urban development and a zoning plan for the control of the height and area or bulk, location and use of buildings and premises and of the density of population. Such master plan shall be made with the general purpose of guiding and accomplishing a coordinated, adjusted and harmonious development of the region and of public improvements and utilities which do not begin and terminate within the boundaries of any single municipality or which do not relate exclusively to the development of any single municipality and which will, in accordance with the present and future needs of the region and the state, best promote health, safety, morals, order, convenience, prosperity and general welfare, as well as efficiency and economy in the process of development.
    (Acts 1935, No. 534, p. 1126; Code 1940, T. 37, §811.)


    It is also a matter of fact that experts in Planning say, No one can design a city; no doubt they mean, no one on Earth. Then the question is, “Is there other intelligent life in the universe that can?” I should say so. What's it all about - Orderly and systematic development, by design - with a willing client, Architects following the principles of good design can design and build anything anywhere with due regard for the natural ecological and sociological environment and for everyone and everything concerned.

    Moderator note:
    (nerudite) Note: some of the discussion in this post is State-specific to Alabama. As always, consult your local State/Provincial laws and planning enabling legislation when beginning the comprehensive planning process.


    Notice Alabama Laws are dated 1935 - 1940 and are in accord with Dillon's Rule rather than Home Rule.
    Last edited by NHPlanner; 30 Oct 2006 at 12:08 PM. Reason: merged post regarding home rule observation.

  7. #57
    Forums Administrator & Gallery Moderator NHPlanner's avatar
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    Moderator note:
    Follow up mesage by bud regarding the "politics" of enabling legislation deleted. This thread is not the appropriate place for politics or agenda pushing.



    Please, stay on topic in the threads outside of the FAC. If you want to discuss the politics of enabling legislation, please do so in a new thread devoted to that topic.
    "Growth is inevitable and desirable, but destruction of community character is not. The question is not whether your part of the world is going to change. The question is how." -- Edward T. McMahon, The Conservation Fund

  8. #58
    Cyburbian
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    Read the enabling act and understand the process. You really can't do anything until you know what you are required to do and when you are required to do it.

  9. #59
    Cyburbian Tobinn's avatar
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    First things first...

    Q. Why Have a Comprehensive Plan?

    A. The City’s Comprehensive Plan serves as a guide for local decision-making and forms the foundation of the City’s Code of Ordinances. It is a dynamic tool used by the City to balance and reconcile all the various aspects of maintenance and growth. The City’s Comprehensive Plan provides assurance to the citizens of the City that development implements the City’s vision for the future. The Comprehensive Plan is the veritable DNA or blueprint of the community. It is important to remember that Comprehensive Plans are not static documents. They evolve and change just as a community changes over time.

    The following is from http://archive.ci.champaign.il.us/compplan/1/1_1.htm

    * It conveys a vision of the community in 15 to 20 years
    * It anticipates the future needs of the community
    * It represents the public interest
    * It presents policy direction
    * It presents a comprehensive strategy to shape a community's future
    * It coordinates the inter-relatedness of the many city functions
    * It balances the needs of existing urban areas with the needs of growth areas
    * It designates land use and transportation routes through the Future Land Use Map

  10. #60
    Cyburbian vagaplanner's avatar
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    Quote Originally posted by edyo View post
    Q. What is different between Comprehensive Plan and Master Planning ? and What is different between Structure planning and Detail Planning?
    These terms are often used synonymously. However, I think of a Comprehensive Plan as just the policy document that provides the basis for every aspect of the physical and economic development of the community, including the basis of the zoning and subdivision regulations. But I think of a Master Plan as a combined document that contains the Comp Plan, Zoning Ordinance and Subdivision Regulations and maybe even the sign code and any additional development guidelines that have been adopted. Some communities may also call this a Unified Development Ordinance (UDO). You may also see the term "master plan" applied to the development of large tracts of land (i.e. A Master Planned Community."

  11. #61
    Super Moderator luckless pedestrian's avatar
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    oh wait, one more graph, one more map, please?

    I'm not sure where to put this thought, perhaps it's merely random in nature but...

    I just printed out my Comp Plan (it's done!) and it's 422 pages, one-sided

  12. #62
    Cyburbian Streck's avatar
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    I have just scanned the messages, but I didn't see much about infrastructure - trunk sewer lines or interceptors based on topography, water well locations and elevated water tank locations and size based on aquifer capacity and quality, fire station locations based on an optimum travel distance, same for police stations, thoroughfare capacity and growth and related bridges, etc.

    Electrical lines and substation locations?

    Gas lines and pressure regulation station locations?

    Schools? Parks and Recreation? Shared facilities? Stadiums?

    Transportation needs? Mass transit?

    Also, a basis for projecting capital improvement budget needs related to projected population, development, and tax base.

    Also, I didn't see anything about a recommended ratio of residential space to commercial and industrial space percentages.

    Are planners getting much engineering input to their Comprehensive Plans?

  13. #63
    Super Moderator luckless pedestrian's avatar
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    Quote Originally posted by Streck View post
    I have just scanned the messages, but I didn't see much about infrastructure - trunk sewer lines or interceptors based on topography, water well locations and elevated water tank locations and size based on aquifer capacity and quality, fire station locations based on an optimum travel distance, same for police stations, thoroughfare capacity and growth and related bridges, etc.

    Electrical lines and substation locations?

    Gas lines and pressure regulation station locations?

    Schools? Parks and Recreation? Shared facilities? Stadiums?

    Transportation needs? Mass transit?

    Also, a basis for projecting capital improvement budget needs related to projected population, development, and tax base.

    Also, I didn't see anything about a recommended ratio of residential space to commercial and industrial space percentages.

    Are planners getting much engineering input to their Comprehensive Plans?
    yes, I have all that - that's why it's so dang long!

    www.barharbormaine.gov under Planning Department (not Board)

  14. #64
    Cyburbian Clore's avatar
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    Q. How do you address those who are ready to jump down your throat about property rights when you haven't even started drafting the plan yet?
    ...Moving at the speed of local government

  15. #65
    Cyburbian boiker's avatar
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    Quote Originally posted by Clore View post
    Q. How do you address those who are ready to jump down your throat about property rights when you haven't even started drafting the plan yet?
    They do have a right to attent the public hearings and give their two cents. They also need to realize they are probably outnumbered 9 to 1 by residents who want some level of property use restrictions and that the state government allows you the right to regulate it for the public good.
    Dude, I'm cheesing so hard right now.

  16. #66
    Cyburbian ruralplanner's avatar
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    The following are my thoughts, from the perspective of a public planner…

    Q. What should I know before starting to develop a comprehensive plan for my community?

    Recognize that the final decision to adopt the plan will be made by the respective Town Board or Village Council. Be aware of the level of political will to gauge how progressive the comprehensive plan could be relative to the comfort level of the current elected officials to adopt such a plan.

    Identify the critical issues in the community and anticipate that the comprehensive planning process will likely be consumed by these primary issues. Make sure that your planner has a solid understanding of these issues.

    Assess the level of knowledge on planning issues in the community and when planning to plan incorporate appropriate educational components.

    Q. What innovative methods do people use to advertise or increase turnout at public meetings?

    Have used the following, sometimes to no avail: newpaper notices, press releases, vision sessions, surveys, focus groups, appointed planning committees, meeting consolidation i.e., all day Saturdays. Since we are rural we implemented a late meeting start time, sometimes as late as 8:00 p.m. to allow farmers to finish their farm chores. This has worked well. This may also work in the suburbs for those who have hour-long commutes from the big city.

    Q. What do you do when you've exhausted all of your means and still cannot get any substantial public input for the community's plan?

    Get property rights interest groups involved. They will drum up public input. This actually worked in one of the towns I worked with. Dismal attendance swelled to over 100 in a town of only about 300 people. We got great media coverage and the end result was a plan that respected property rights but also set the stage for a very progressive and bright future.

    Otherwise, if there is not much input and the group knows that they tried every avenue to get input just figure that the final plan is ok and adopt it.

    One other method that I have tried that has worked well includes directing your ad-hoc planning committee to bring at least two of their neighbors with them to meetings—or at least talk to them to get input on proposed policies and bring the input back to the larger group. Talking with your neighbors is cheap, easy and seems to always solicit the most candid input.


    Q. What are the key elements/aspects that the comprehensive plan should address?

    Planning affects communities and ultimately the lives of people. List as many elements as you want, all are valid and important—the reality, in my opinion, is that the key element is about community and people. As a side, just be aware of any State element requirements.
    Q. 6 months after it's adoption and printing, is there any reason to keep drafts / comments in the file?

    Yes! Keep everything. Put it all in archives and let you successor make the decision. In one case comments made by some members of the public were used in a court case. Your employer also probably has a records retention policy. It is public record. Keep it!

    Q. Does anyone have an example of a Comp Plan Timeline?

    We have many. Some are complex and some are simple. I can certainly forward these to anyone who is interested.

    I guess I’d like to add the questions, Is there value in Comprehensive Planning?

    Yes and No. In many cases our communities, prior to the adoption of their comprehensive plan, had simple land use plans. The comprehensive planning legislation in our State has required communities to address nine elements. While there is value in this, in every planning process each community wanted to address the main issues of interest (and right away), which typically dealt with conflicts between rural development and agriculture. It has been difficult for small communities of 300-500 people to accept the need for comprehensive planning and for it to be so… well… comprehensive. On the other hand it has forced communities to think about their future and how they are going to get there. By far the greatest benefit that I have witnessed from comprehensive planning has been the creation of new community leaders ready and comfortable to move their community forward. While the older leaders have done a fine job for the last, oh 25 years or so, fresh perspectives and new leaders are needed to move ahead and prepare for the future.

    Q. How do you address those who are ready to jump down your throat about property rights when you haven't even started drafting the plan yet?

    I posted this under a previous threat and will post it again. Property rights is a valid concern, but so is the future of the community. Use the bundle of rights discussion and this will likely diffuse the situation.

    “The property rights discussion is a hard yet real one. If you look at property by itself, property ownership comes with a bundle of rights. The right to develop it, the right subdivide it, the right to establish a commercial enterprise, the right to sell it, the right to extract resources from it, the right to…whatever you want with it. But it also includes the security that your rights won’t be diminished by what your neighbor chooses to do with their land. Once this connection is made, than the connection can be made to the purpose of regulation—which is not to solely remove property rights—but to actually protect property rights. So property rights are all of these things, but it is also the security offered by regulation that your property rights and enjoyment of your property will not be diminished by the choices of others.

    From a broader sense, many communities have some sort of plan that contains a community vision and/or goals that are based upon public participation efforts. To achieve this vision of a future community, property owners need to relinquish some of their rights, but in return they gain the opportunity to own property in a community that will maintain or enhance its values and character.”

  17. #67
    Cyburbian
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    getting and maintaing public interest

    Originally posted by Planderella

    Q. What do you do when you've exhausted all of your means and still cannot get any substantial public input for the community's plan?
    Q. What innovate methods do people use to advertise or increase turnout at public meetings?
    Where I live (Sweden) the comprehensive plan is strategic in nature and although "adopted" by Council is not legally binding. The detailed plan by contrast, is. Amongst other things, the comprehensive plans identify where detailed plans need to be provided or updated.

    Accepting that my municipality was not huge, I thought it innovative to find a little brochure in my mail box one day. It explained that the municipality was starting a comprehensive planning exercise and invited direct involvement. It also identified a number of "strategic" issues that needed to be addressed, and asked several specific questions which we as residents were encouraged to give inputs to. The answers could be written directly in the brochure and the whole thing returned to the municipality.

    An alternative would be to get e-mail addresses of residents and send them info over the net. You need to follow your own laws to avoid any accusation of spamming or whatever.

    In my own separate planning exercise, I have tried to start with assets and vision, rather than problems. The response was surprisingly enthusiastic. It led to the spontaneous establishment of a civic "committee" that developed into a "town development NGO." Although the plan did address hard physical infrastructural aspects, it became (I think because of the starting point with assets) more focused on economic opportunities, and the provision of infrastructure (including zoning and regulations) to encourage new entrepreneurs and employment. There were civic/business supported beautification projects started and completed before the plan even got finished. The plan identified a number of programs to undertake over the coming 5 years.

    The idea in that town is now to have a festival at budget time each year. The theme of the festival will focus on various assets in town, but behind the scenes council will meet with business people and civic reps to review progress and re-prioritise programs as an input to the new budget. This is hoped to keep up the momentum of public and business sector involvement. In the fourth year, the overall plan will be reviewed - do we need to change strategies? priorities? are there new trends? are our visions still valid, etc.?

    One conclusion from this, on the question of what should be known prior to starting is...how to work with people. Or as a slightly altered book title might put it:

    How to talk so people will listen and listen so people will talk.

  18. #68
    moderator in moderation Suburb Repairman's avatar
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    Q: What should the role of a Planning Commissioner be in the comprehensive planning process?

    "Oh, that is all well and good, but, voice or no voice, the people can always be brought to the bidding of the leaders. That is easy. All you have to do is tell them they are being attacked and denounce the pacifists for lack of patriotism and exposing the country to danger. It works the same way in any country."

    - Herman Göring at the Nuremburg trials (thoughts on democracy)

  19. #69
    Cyburbian boiker's avatar
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    Quote Originally posted by Suburb Repairman View post
    Q: What should the role of a Planning Commissioner be in the comprehensive planning process?
    Facilitator. They should be the knowledgeable citizen component that fosters discussion between the general public and staff.
    Dude, I'm cheesing so hard right now.

  20. #70
    Cyburbian TexanOkie's avatar
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    Q: How do you keep an over-zealous community from driving away businesses by inflating land prices after reading the land use section of a comprehensive plan?

    Our town has a good comprehensive plan, and citizens and government officials are behind it 100% (which seems odd, especially for Texas). They're too into it. When several of the old-money landowners surrounding our town (2007 pop. estimate 17,000 on roughly 7 square miles) and local real estate developers read our land use section, which has a progressive outlook, speculation started pushing current land prices to the values we were supposed to be seeing when our land use plan comes to fruition in 20 years. Surrounding communities who have either had a comprehensive plan longer than we have or do not yet have one are drawing potential commercial development away because land is less expensive. Has anyone else dealt with this problem, or, more importantly, does anyone have any ideas for solutions to this problem? Without the commercial development that was part of our land use plan, the city's tax base and general livability will suffer, and many of the assumptions and plans made in our comprehensive plan will be nullified or useless.

  21. #71
    Cyburbian
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    stakeholder analysis

    Q. What innovative methods do people use to advertise or increase turnout at public meetings?
    It occurred to me as I whistled through this thread again, that perhaps we need to look more specifically at the plan's stakeholders. There are lots of ways to classify them, according to their legitimacy, power and loudness, or their particular sector of interest. But getting a better understanding of their different types of interest in the plan may give ideas of how to reach them and target discussions with them. (Chambers of Commerce, Civic organisations, PTAs, faith groups, residential associations, and so on.)

    It also gives a good idea of which interest groups will be for or against particular elements in the plan (force field analysis), and help design strategies to deal in constructive ways with antagonists.

  22. #72
    Super Moderator luckless pedestrian's avatar
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    I don't know if this is the right place for it but Town Meeting approved my comprehensive plan with an 82% margin - 32% showed up for the ballot compared to 20% statewide - not a bad mandate



    I will do a write up that I will post somewhere in Cyburbia about the process I used and what worked and what didn't and what will I do the next time as well as the implementation scheme - so stay tuned -

  23. #73
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    Attractive Comprehensive Plans

    Does anyone have any examples of "attractive" Comprehensive Plans both in printed format and web format? We're working on our next Comp Plan update, and our leaders have requested a "sexy" document (their choice of adjective, not mine).

  24. #74
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    I also need some sample Comp Plans and some advice on how to educate a community that wants no part of a comprehensive plan.

    The town I'm dealing with has a proposed movie production studio to be built on town owned land. The townsfolk are so excited about the possibility of Hollywood in their own backyard and the amount of high quality jobs that no one is concerned about the development aspects. No one is concerned about the related development to schools, roads, sewer, water, etc. .... Any help is appreciated.

    The thinking is that the developers will provide a master plan for the area and it will save the town money.

  25. #75
    Cyburbian Plus
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    Since we are interested in Earthquakes today,
    does anybody else's Comp Plan have a discussion on Earthquakes ?


    In our Comp Plan we have a pretty good discussion with maps about Earthquakes beginning on page 6 to page 12:
    http://evansvilleapc.com/textdoc/Com...20features.pdf
    Oddball
    Why don't you knock it off with them negative waves?
    Why don't you dig how beautiful it is out here?
    Why don't you say something righteous and hopeful for a change?
    From Kelly's Heroes (1970)


    Are you sure you're not hurt ?
    No. Just some parts wake up faster than others.
    Broke parts take a little longer, though.
    From Electric Horseman (1979)

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