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# Thread: Bicycle level of service

1. ## Bicycle level of service

I'm analyzing bicycle level of service (BLOS) using secondary data. We have some, but are missing a lot of figures such as kd ratio, directional split, speed limit, pavement condition, etc. This study is relatively minor so actually going into the field, taking measurements, and doing counts is out of the question. I've seen assumed values for volume (12,000 adt), pavement condition (4.0 on scale of 1 to 5), percent heavy vehicles (2%), speed limit (40),

Does anyone know if there are standard assumed values for kd ratio and directional split? I think but am not certain that kd ratio is .10 and directional split is just .5...

2. Arrrgh...I can't find my tech manual right now. I hope someone else out there has the answer. In the meantine, I will keep looking when I get the chance.

3. Thanks to anyone who tried and was stumped. Turns out the answers are: KD Ratio is 0.10; directional split is 0.565.

I don't understand though why it's 0.565 and not just .5...

4. Don't know if this will help.

http://www.dot.state.fl.us/planning/...2002Novweb.pdf

BICYCLE LOS MODEL
For bicycle Q/LOS, the FDOT has concluded that the Bicycle LOS
Model, developed by Sprinkle Consulting Inc. (SCI), is the best
analytical methodology. It is technically sound, superior for
Florida applications compared with other approaches including
the one appearing in the HCM, and has been successfully applied
to over 100,000 miles of roadways in the U.S (including Florida)
and Canada. Because it is an operational model, FDOT, in
cooperation with the model developers, have made some
simplifying assumptions for incorporation into this Handbook
and accompanying software.
In the Bicycle LOS Model, bicycle levels of service are based on
five variables with relative importance (T statistic) ordered in the
following list:
• average effective width of the outside through lane,
• motorized vehicle volumes,
• motorized vehicle speeds,
• heavy vehicle (truck) volumes, and
• pavement condition.
Q/LOS Evaluation Techniques Bicycle LOS Model 2.2
FDOT Quality/Level of Service Handbook 18
Average effective width is largely determined by the width of the
outside travel lane and striping for bicyclists, but also includes
other factors such as the effects of street parking and drainage
grates. Each of the variables is weighted by coefficients derived by
stepwise regression modeling importance. A numerical LOS
score, generally ranging from 0.5 to 6.5, is determined and
stratified to a LOS letter grade. Thus, unlike the determination of
automobile LOS in the HCM2000, in which there is usually only
one service measure (e.g., average travel speed), bicycle LOS is
determined based on multiple factors. In the Bicycle LOS Model,
bicycle levels of service are determined using the following
equation and then applying the level of service thresholds (see
Table 2-1) to the calculated scores.
Bicycle LOS Model equation
The Bicycle LOS Model is based on the following equation:
BLOS = 0.507 ln (Vol15/L) + 0.199SPt(1+10.38HV)2
+7.066(1/PR5)2-0.005(We)2+ 0.760
Where:
BLOS = Bicycle level of service score
ln = Natural log
Vol15 = Volume of directional motorized vehicles in the peak 15
minute time period
L = Total number of directional through lanes
SPt = Effective speed factor = 1.1199 In(SPp - 20) + 0.8103
SPp = Posted speed limit (a surrogate for average running
speed)
HV = percentage of heavy vehicles
PR5 = FHWA’s five point pavement surface condition rating
We = Average effective width of outside through lane
Where:
We = Wv - (10ft x %OSP) Where W1 = 0
We = Wv + W1(1 - 2x %OSP) Where W1 > 0 & Wps = 0
We = Wv + W1 - 2 (10 x %OSP) Where W1 > 0 & Wps > 0
and a bicycle lane exists
Where:
Wt = total width of outside lane (and shoulder)
pavement
%OSP = percentage of segment with occupied on-street parking
W1 = width of paving between the outside lane stripe
and the edge of pavement
Wps = width of pavement striped for on-street parking
Wv = Effective width as a function of traffic volume
Q/LOS Evaluation Techniques Bicycle LOS Model 2.2
FDOT Quality/Level of Service Handbook 19
Many Bicycle LOS Model
mathematical terms are
also HCM2000 motorized
vehicle terms.
Where:
Wv = Wt if AADT > 4,000 veh/day
undivided and striped
Table 2 – 1
BICYCLE AND PEDESTRIAN LEVEL OF SERVICE
CATEGORIES
Level of Service Score
A < 1.5
B > 1.5 and < 2.5
C > 2.5 and < 3.5
D > 3.5 and < 4.5
E > 4.5 and < 5.5
F > 5.5
Noteworthy, many of the factors in the Bicycle LOS Model
equation are also used to determine automobile LOS in the
HCM2000 methodology, and are either logarithmic or
exponential functions. Logarithmic and exponential functions
make the importance of the variables differ significantly
depending on the precise value. For example, the bicycle LOS
drops dramatically as motorized vehicle volumes initially rise, but
then tends to deteriorate more slowly at higher volumes. Another
example is the effect of motorized vehicle speed. At low speeds,
the variable is not as significant in determining bicycle LOS, but
at higher speeds it plays an ever increasing role.
Bicycle LOS Model is not
applicable to off-street
facilities.
Bicycle Q/LOS is based on bicyclists’ perceptions in the roadway
environment, specifically on the roadway cross section. The
model is not applicable to off-street facilities, such as shared use
paths or sidewalks. Analysts are encouraged to use discretion
when assigning a bicycle LOS to a roadway when shared use
paths exist. For example, if an outstanding path with few
intersection conflicts (e.g. Pinellas Trail, a facility along a