I pulled some data from StatsCan. All these numbers are as of 2001, the last census, and apply to the Vancouver CMA (Census Metropolitan Area) - also known as Greater Vancouver.
Total - Experienced labour force 1,049,910
Management occupations 124,965
Business, finance and administration occupations 207,890
Natural and applied sciences and related occupations 75,150
Health occupations 54,895
Social science, education, government service and religion 85,980
Art, culture, recreation and sport 42,595
Sales and service occupations 263,770
Trades, transport and equipment operators and related occupations 130,110
Occupations unique to primary industry 18,350
Occupations unique to processing, manufacturing and utilities 46,205
We can see that sales/service, business/finance, and trades/transport come out on top. Sales and service are booming simply because of Vancouver's size - it seems large enough, as with other cities, to generate a bit of its own economic activity. Business and finance reflect the growing role that Vancouver holds in the Canadian money market as well as a stepping stone for cross-Pacific lending and financing. The trades can be explained by a booming construction industry, and the transport can be explained by the Port of Vancouver, which handles well over 60% of all cargo that enters and leaves Canada.
This is another interesting StatsCan source that breaks down jobs by specific industry. Once again retail (service) comes out on top.
In the 1980s it would have been the case that natural resource extraction fueled Vancouver, but this cannot be said to be the only major industry today. Increasingly, matters of research, manufacturing, health, trade, money market, and other sectors are grabbing larger shares of the pie.