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I think that jitneys were small buses/large cars that had fixed routes. Scheduling is usually more flexible than regular bus service. If he was speaking about historic jitneys, they probably looked something like this photo. New jitneys are the types of buses that are used now for paratransit or airport shuttles. In fact, airport shuttles are probably a good example of a jitney.
Geek trivia: the name 'jitney' for these buses came from the slang for a nickel, which happened to be the fare at the time jitneys first started being used.
Here in my city a jitney is an unlicenced cab of sorts which you usually find in inner city and underprivaliged neighborhoods. They operate on a set fee to go from point A to point B and usually can be found hanging out outside grocery stores asking people if they need a ride.
From the context, he seemed to be discussing mass transit in historical perspective so I would lean towards the vehicle depicted in the photo Nerudite posted.
And as to the geek trivia, I was thinking there would be some connection to the nickel. There is a grocery store chain in Mississippi called "Jitney Jungle" which derives its name from the turn of the century slang for a nickel.