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Parking shared parking contributions vs. on-site

ownzone

Member
Messages
10
Points
1
I'm seeking examples of ordinances for CBDs or town centers that waive off-street parking requirements in return for a contribution to a shared parking facility, which could be privately- or municipally-sponsored. Something like a parking utility -- everyone essentially pays for the off-street spaces they would otherwise need to provide.

Any other examples of "flexible" parking standards would also be welcome. For example, standards that allow adjacent on-street parking to count toward the off-street requirement.
 

NHPlanner

Forums Administrator & Gallery Moderator
Staff member
Moderator
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9,860
Points
38
A couple of places that recently posted similar questions/replies to the Northern New England Chapter of the APA e-mail listserv:

Freeport Maine has several parking lots that lease spaces to the merchants that don't have the required number of spaces on their property. The average rate is $100/space/month. The parking leases are managed by the town, the town keeps 10% of the lease payments and the money is used for downtown upgrades.
Contact Donna Larson - dlarson@freeportmaine.com

From Judy East (jeast@emdc.org) -
Way back in the late 1980's when I was working for the Town of East Hampton (Long Island, NY)they had this kind of parking fund in the village of Montauk. You might try to call Margeurite Wolffson their current planning director. I don't have her number but the area code is 631 if you want to try information (555-1212)and ask for the Planning Department of the Town of East Hampton.
The original question came from Valerie Capels, City of Montpelier, VT (vcapels@montpelier-vt.org):
The City of Montpelier is interested to know what other communities have parking replacement fees, or something like it, and what the range(s) the fee is.

We offer (in downtown-area districts only) applicants the option of paying a parking replacement fee of $1,000 per space to meet their parking requirement if they aren't able to provide the required number of spaces on-site or through some other shared arrangement. That money is put in a parking replacement fund that is used to construct new, public parking in the downtown area, such as those that were built on Stone Cutters Way in Montpelier. (We argue that it is not an impact fee because it is an alternative provided to meet a required standard in the ordinance). Our fee of $1,000 per space was established by resolution in 1989 and Montpelier officials would like to increase it.
Good luck!
 

nerudite

Cyburbian
Messages
6,544
Points
29
Vancouver, WA:

Section 20.81.310 CITY CENTER DISTRICT (C) PARKING SPACE REQUIREMENTS.

The following minimum requirements shall apply, in accordance with Section 20.59.400 (Parking Control Combining District), in all areas zoned City Center District (C):

TABLE 20.81.310 - C DISTRICT PARKING SPACE REQUIREMENTS
LAND USE PARKING REQUIREMENTS
A. Residential 1 space/dwelling unit
B. Transient lodging 1 space/living unit
C. Congregate care facilities 1 space/two (2) living units
D. All other uses 1 space/1,000 sq. ft. of floor area

Zones outside of the C Zone will be calculated at the rates listed in Section 20.81.320, "Balance of the City."

Section 20.81.311 USE OF PUBLIC PARKING.
The requirements for off-street parking can be satisfied by execution of a long-term lease for a segment of equivalent parking in an existing public or private parking facility. Lease fees in public facilities would be at market rates as established and adjusted by the Vancouver City Council after considering the advice of the Parking Advisory Committee. Continued leasing of such space would be a requirement of compliance with this Ordinance, and failure to provide the required parking would be cause for revocation of the occupancy permit for the structure involved.

Section 20.81.312 ALTERNATIVE MEANS OF MEETING PARKING REQUIREMENTS.

In any area zoned City Center (C), a developer may satisfy the parking requirements of this code by:
A. Contributing to the City's parking fund in lieu of providing a portion or all of the required parking. The contribution would be at a minimum rate of $6,600 per space, or at the cost of providing equivalent parking meeting City codes, as documented by the developer and approved by the Vancouver Parking Advisory Committee. The Parking Advisory Committee and the City Council may raise the minimum amount of the required contribution from time to time should the cost of constructing off-street parking increase. Under this option, an equivalent number of spaces would be reserved in a municipal facility in proximity to the developer's building for the exclusive use of customers, tenants or occupants of the building. Such spaces would be leased at the same rate as parking spaces in other municipal facilities. The City Council may waive the in lieu fee for a proposed project if it finds that: (1) the project will have a significant beneficial impact on the City of Vancouver; (2) over a period of 20 years, the net present value of the City's financial participation in the project as a whole (including the waiver of the parking in lieu fees) is neutral or positive using a discount rate equal to or greater than the City's anticipated investment yield; and (3) the City's financial participation in the project as a whole (including waiver of the parking in lieu fees) is not more than is necessary to allow the project proponent to earn a fair market return given the amount of the investment and the risk of the project.
B. Contributing to the City's parking fund, in lieu of providing all or a portion of the required parking, an amount of $8,250 per required space. This money would be dedicated to the construction of a municipal parking structure in the vicinity of the development but construction thereof would be at the discretion of the City. The Parking Advisory Committee and the City Council may raise the minimum amount of the required contribution from time to time should the cost of constructing off-street parking increase. Such contribution would be subject to a contract between the owners of the property and the City of Vancouver providing for the payment of annual operating and maintenance costs of the facility. Spaces in a facility constructed by the City equivalent to the number of spaces purchased by the developer would be reserved for the exclusive use and occupancy of tenants, clients and occupants of the building. The City Council may waive the in lieu fee for a proposed project if it finds that: (1) the project will have a significant beneficial impact on the City of Vancouver; (2) over a period of 20 years, the net present value of the City's financial participation in the project as a whole (including the waiver of the parking in lieu fees) is neutral or positive using a discount rate equal to or greater than the City's anticipated investment yield; and (3) the City's financial participation in the project as a whole (including waiver of the parking in lieu fees) is not more than is necessary to allow the project proponent to earn a fair market return given the amount of the investment and the risk of the project.
 

nerudite

Cyburbian
Messages
6,544
Points
29
Davis (CA) also had in-lieu fees and flexible standards for the CBD:

Chapter 40 ZONING*
40.25.060 In-lieu-of parking payments.
This section shall not be operational until parking lot sites are designated by the city. Off-street parking for properties where on-site parking is not permitted at grade level, or where in-lieu-of payments are a permitted alternative to on-site parking at grade level, may be provided as follows:
(a) By payment to the city in an amount equal to the value of the required parking on a per parking place basis. From time to time the city council shall establish by resolution the value of off-street parking facilities on a per parking place basis. Funds collected by the city from such payment shall be deposited in a special fund and used only by the city to acquire and/or develop off-street parking and related facilities which are determined by the city council to alleviate the need for parking spaces in the core area.
(b) Such parking shall be available to the public and shall be in or near commercial districts of the city.
(c) Funds paid to the city for in-lieu-of parking shall not be refundable, except where funds are not used within ten years.
(d) In-lieu-of parking payments must be approved by the city council.
(e) All in-lieu-of parking fees shall be paid prior to the issuance of any license or permit by the city. (Ord. No. 924, § 5; Ord. No. 946, § 5.)


Here are some variations from normal parking standards in Davis:

(c) Uses in the central commercial district, except uses located within Parking District Number 3, shall not require off-street parking if the property is located in a parking district of ten or more parcels. As used herein, Parking District Number 3 is the properties located between 1st and 3rd Streets and D Street and the Southern Pacific railroad right-of-way; a map delineating this area shall be kept on file in the community development department. Off-street parking for uses in the central commercial district that are not within Parking District Number 3 and are not within any other parking district of ten or more parcels may be provided in accordance with subsection (e) of this section. Off-street parking for uses within Parking District Number 3 shall be provided in accordance with subsection (d) of this section.
(d) Uses within Parking District Number 3 shall not require off-street parking; provided, however, that at the time any new building is erected, any existing building is enlarged or increased in gross leasable square footage, off-street parking shall be provided for that new building or the enlargement or increase in gross leasable square footage. As used herein, gross leasable square footage includes interior alterations and modifications that increase the leasable square footage of the building.
Off-street parking requirements for the new building or enlargement or increase in gross leasable square footage shall be determined in accordance with section 40.25.090 and may be satisfied by compliance with the requirements of section 40.25.090 or the requirements of subsection (e) of this section. Parking requirements shall be determined by the use of the new building or enlargement or increase in gross leasable square footage; provided, however, that if the use to which the new building or the enlargement or increase in gross leasable square footage is changed or replaced within twelve (12) months from the date a certificate of occupancy is issued for the new building, enlargement or increased gross leasable square footage, then parking shall be provided in accordance with the requirements for the changed or replacement use. No Certificate of occupancy for such new or replacement use shall be issued until the parking requirements for the new or replacement use are satisfied.
(e) Where permitted in this section, off-street parking for properties within the central commercial district and the commercial service district may be provided as follows:
(1) Formation of a parking district including fewer than ten parcels with agreement of the property owner to pay assessments sufficient to provide parking at a location approved by the planning commission;
(2) Provision for off-street parking at locations approved by the planning commission. Lots shall be developed in accordance with parking standards established by section 40.25.070.
(3) Provision for parking at any location within three hundred feet of the proposed use in accordance with section 40.25.090. Lots shall be developed in accordance with parking standards established by section 40.25.070. (Ord. No. 296, § 23.5; Ord. No. 316, § 13: Ord. No. 1487, § 1.)
 

donk

Cyburbian
Messages
6,970
Points
29
From our By-law. it has never been used.

I would also suggest checking out Lehman's big book of zoning provisions.

DOWNTOWN PARKING EXEMPTION
4.2.13 For the purpose of this section, the areas zoned Central Commercial shall be exempted from on-site parking requirements, subject to the following:
a) In a Central Commercial zone, the calculation of the number of parking spaces required for any development shall be determined in accordance with Subsection 4.2.1
b) No parking shall be required for the replacement of a building destroyed or demolished after the effective date of this By-law. As long as the floor area of the replacement building does not exceed that which existed prior to the destruction or
demolition of the building standing on the effective date of this By-law.
c) Notwithstanding Subsection 5.2.1 no additional parking will be required when a building or part of a building is converted from one use to another, provided the building was in existence on the effective date of this By-law and provided the subject building is not being enlarged.
d) In the event of the construction of a new building, or the expansion (increase in floor area) of an existing building, Council may, in its discretion, allow a developer, in lieu of providing required parking spaces, to pay to the City a sum of moneycalculated at the rate of $2,400.00 per parking space which shall be payable on such terms and conditions
as Council may determine.
 

BKM

Cyburbian
Messages
6,464
Points
29
Another example (City of Fairfield)

25.28.3 Downtown Area Parking (P1) Overlay District

The purpose of the Downtown Parking Overlay District (P1) is to allow land uses to deviate from the parking requirements of Section 25.34 (Parking and Loading). This deviation is allowed in recognition of the unique characteristics of the downtown area (CM, CD, and CDC zoning districts) such as: mixed uses, pedestrian scale of development, availability of transit, and the urban streetscape. The regulations of this overlay district will allow a reduction in the number of required parking spaces and may permit the use of in-lieu fees and off-site parking facilities.

A. Applicability. The (P1) overlay district shall apply to all properties located in the CM, CD and CDC zoning districts.

B. Parking Requirements. The provision of parking shall be according to the following:

1. 100 or fewer spaces required. When a non-residential use or uses on a parcel would require 100 or fewer parking spaces as determined by Section 25.34 (Parking and Loading), the required number of parking spaces provided shall be 50 percent of the required number.

2. More than 100 spaces required. When a non-residential use or uses on the same parcel would require more than 100 parking spaces, all parking spaces required by Section 25.34 shall be provided. The existence of parking assessment district credits and/or previously paid in-lieu fees shall not be taken into consideration as to whether the 100 parking space threshold is exceeded.

C. In-lieu fees. The parking requirements of this Section may be satisfied by the payment of a fee in lieu of providing the parking spaces. The amount of the fee shall be determined by the City Council.

The use of in-lieu fees for non-residential land uses shall be at the discretion of the approval authority. Such use may be denied or limited based on the particular characteristics of the proposed use, adjacent uses, and availability of parking in the vicinity. In-lieu fees shall not be used to satisfy parking requirements for residential uses.

D. Parking assessment district credits. Each property which was included in the 1962-1 parking assessment district shall receive a credit towards required parking equal to the number of parking spaces that the property originally contributed. The amount of the credit for each property has been calculated using the City Engineer's report for the district. Such credits may be applied only to the particular property, as may be subsequently subdivided or merged, but shall not be transferred or used to satisfy the parking requirement on any other property.

E. Building additions. No additional parking shall be required for structural alterations, repairs, or for building additions less than 400 square feet in area. Any building addition greater than 400 square feet shall provide parking in accordance with subsection 25.28.3 (B). Such addition shall not require the provision of any additional parking for principal building(s) in existence before April 2, 1985.

F. Change of land use. A change in the use of an existing building shall not require the provision of any additional parking spaces unless both the following are found to exist:

1. The new use would require more than 100 parking spaces as calculated in the manner specified by subsection 25.28.3 (B) above, and

2. The new use would require 25 percent more parking spaces than the most recent use of the building.

When a new use requires more than 100 parking spaces, the required amount shall be provided through on-site parking, off-site parking, in-lieu fees, parking assessment district credits, or a combination thereof.

G. Off-site parking. Required parking may be located off-site when located within 300 feet from the property.

H. Records. The Department of Planning and Development shall maintain a record of parking assessment district credits or in-lieu fees paid for each lot within the (P1) district. This record shall contain the total number of parking spaces to which each property is entitled. (Ord. No. 85-10, § 3.)
 

ownzone

Member
Messages
10
Points
1
shared parking follow-up

Thanks to all who responded -- this forum is an absolute gold mine! I should mention that the peculiarity of this situation is that it's not a traditional downtown; it's a master-planned "TND" or new urbanist style downtown in a suburban location. The city is committed to participating, but is not sure if it wants to manage the parking through an authority or some other kind of entity. Nevertheless, most of the examples provided will be really useful... thanks

(glad I joined the forum; will have to come up with a cute photo someday!)
 
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